# Ising model¶

The Ising Hamiltonian can be written as,

$$\mathcal{H} = -J \sum_{\langle i j \rangle} S_{i} S_{j}.$$
• The spins $S_{i}$ can take values $\pm 1$,
• $\langle i j \rangle$ implies nearest-neighbor interaction only,
• $J>0$ is the strength of exchange interaction.

The system undergoes a 2nd order phase transition at the critical temperature $T_{c}$. For temperatures less than $T_{c}$, the system magnetizes, and the state is called the ferromagnetic or the ordered state. This amounts to a globally ordered state due to the presence of local interactions between the spin. For temperatures greater than $T_{c}$, the system is in the disordered or the paramagnetic state. In this case, there are no long-range correlations between the spins.

The order parameter

$$m = \frac{\langle S \rangle}{N},$$

for this system is the average magnetization. The order parameter distinguishes the two phases realized by the systems. It is zero in the disordered state, while non-zero in the ordered, ferromagnetic, state.

The one dimensional (1D) Ising model does not exhibit the phenomenon of phase transition while higher dimensions do. This can be argued based on arguments, due to Peierls, related to the net change in free energy, $F = E-TS$. Here $E$ and $S$ are, respectively, the energy and entropy of the system. We estimate the net change in free energy for introducing a disorder in an otherwise ordered system. The ordered state can only be stable if the net change in free energy is positive, $\Delta F>0$, for any non-zero temperature.

1D Ising model: Introducing a domain wall (defect) in an ordered state increases the energy by $4J$, while the entropy change is $k_B \ln N$, due to $N$ choices to introduce the domain. So net change in the free energy, $\Delta F = 4J - k_BT \ln N$, is always negative for $N\rightarrow\infty$. Thus, the system prefers a disordered state. So, there is no spontaneous symmetry breaking in 1D for an infinite Ising chain. This argument can be generalized for any domain of length $L$ and higher dimensions.

2D Ising model: For two and higher dimensions, we can introduce islands of defects, which cost only at the boundaries, and are thus, proportional to the perimeter $L=\varepsilon N^2$, where $0<\varepsilon<1$. In 2D, the number of islands scale as $3^{\varepsilon N^2}$, while $\Delta E = \varepsilon 4JN^2$. $\Delta F$ is then $\varepsilon 4JN^2 - k_BT \ln (N^{2}3^{\varepsilon N^2})$. This gives a rough estimate of the critical temperature $T_{c} \sim J/k_B$.

### Monte-Carlo simulation of 2D Ising model¶

The following code simulates the Ising model in 2D using the Metropolis algorithm. The main steps of Metropolis algorithm are:

1. Prepare an initial configuration of N spins
2. Flip the spin of a randomly chosen lattice site.
3. Calculate the change in energy dE.
4. If dE < 0, accept the move. Otherwise accept the move with probability exp^{-dE/T}. This satisfies the detailed balance condition, ensuring a final equilibrium state.
5. Repeat 2-4.

In the code below, we have estimated and plotted energy, magnetization, specific heat and susceptibility of the system.

In :
%matplotlib inline
from __future__ import division
import numpy as np
from numpy.random import rand
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

In :
#----------------------------------------------------------------------
##  BLOCK OF FUNCTIONS USED IN THE MAIN CODE
#----------------------------------------------------------------------
def initialstate(N):
''' generates a random spin configuration for initial condition'''
state = 2*np.random.randint(2, size=(N,N))-1
return state

def mcmove(config, beta):
'''Monte Carlo move using Metropolis algorithm '''
for i in range(N):
for j in range(N):
a = np.random.randint(0, N)
b = np.random.randint(0, N)
s =  config[a, b]
nb = config[(a+1)%N,b] + config[a,(b+1)%N] + config[(a-1)%N,b] + config[a,(b-1)%N]
cost = 2*s*nb
if cost < 0:
s *= -1
elif rand() < np.exp(-cost*beta):
s *= -1
config[a, b] = s
return config

def calcEnergy(config):
'''Energy of a given configuration'''
energy = 0
for i in range(len(config)):
for j in range(len(config)):
S = config[i,j]
nb = config[(i+1)%N, j] + config[i,(j+1)%N] + config[(i-1)%N, j] + config[i,(j-1)%N]
energy += -nb*S
return energy/4.

def calcMag(config):
'''Magnetization of a given configuration'''
mag = np.sum(config)
return mag

In :
## change these parameters for a smaller (faster) simulation
nt      = 88         #  number of temperature points
N       = 16         #  size of the lattice, N x N
eqSteps = 1024       #  number of MC sweeps for equilibration
mcSteps = 1024       #  number of MC sweeps for calculation

T       = np.linspace(1.53, 3.28, nt);
E,M,C,X = np.zeros(nt), np.zeros(nt), np.zeros(nt), np.zeros(nt)
n1, n2  = 1.0/(mcSteps*N*N), 1.0/(mcSteps*mcSteps*N*N)
# divide by number of samples, and by system size to get intensive values

In :
#----------------------------------------------------------------------
#  MAIN PART OF THE CODE
#----------------------------------------------------------------------
for tt in range(nt):
E1 = M1 = E2 = M2 = 0
config = initialstate(N)
iT=1.0/T[tt]; iT2=iT*iT;

for i in range(eqSteps):         # equilibrate
mcmove(config, iT)           # Monte Carlo moves

for i in range(mcSteps):
mcmove(config, iT)
Ene = calcEnergy(config)     # calculate the energy
Mag = calcMag(config)        # calculate the magnetisation

E1 = E1 + Ene
M1 = M1 + Mag
M2 = M2 + Mag*Mag
E2 = E2 + Ene*Ene

E[tt] = n1*E1
M[tt] = n1*M1
C[tt] = (n1*E2 - n2*E1*E1)*iT2
X[tt] = (n1*M2 - n2*M1*M1)*iT

In :
f = plt.figure(figsize=(18, 10)); # plot the calculated values

sp =  f.add_subplot(2, 2, 1 );
plt.scatter(T, E, s=50, marker='o', color='IndianRed')
plt.xlabel("Temperature (T)", fontsize=20);
plt.ylabel("Energy ", fontsize=20);         plt.axis('tight');

sp =  f.add_subplot(2, 2, 2 );
plt.scatter(T, abs(M), s=50, marker='o', color='RoyalBlue')
plt.xlabel("Temperature (T)", fontsize=20);
plt.ylabel("Magnetization ", fontsize=20);   plt.axis('tight');

sp =  f.add_subplot(2, 2, 3 );
plt.scatter(T, C, s=50, marker='o', color='IndianRed')
plt.xlabel("Temperature (T)", fontsize=20);
plt.ylabel("Specific Heat ", fontsize=20);   plt.axis('tight');

sp =  f.add_subplot(2, 2, 4 );
plt.scatter(T, X, s=50, marker='o', color='RoyalBlue')
plt.xlabel("Temperature (T)", fontsize=20);
plt.ylabel("Susceptibility", fontsize=20);   plt.axis('tight'); Note: A better optimized version of the above code can be found here. One of the difference being that we do not calculate the exponential in the loop in the optimized cython version. Thus, avoiding $N^2$ calls to a special function. We can do thisas the spins only take values 1 and -1. Thus, there are only two possibilities for an energy increasing move. They are:

In :
# change in energy is 8J
#    d          d               u          u
# d  d  d => d  u  d   or    u  u  u => u  d  u
#    d          d               u          u
#
# change in energy is 4J
#    d          d               u          u
# d  d  u => d  u  u   or    u  u  d => u  d  d
#    d          d               u          u
#
# Here u and d are used for up and down configuration of the spins


## Snapshots of the configurations¶

We start with a random initial condition and then plot the instantaneous configurations, as the system coarsens to its equilibrium state.

In :
%matplotlib inline
# Simulating the Ising model
from __future__ import division
import numpy as np
from numpy.random import rand
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

class Ising():
''' Simulating the Ising model '''
## monte carlo moves
def mcmove(self, config, N, beta):
''' This is to execute the monte carlo moves using
Metropolis algorithm such that detailed
balance condition is satisified'''
for i in range(N):
for j in range(N):
a = np.random.randint(0, N)
b = np.random.randint(0, N)
s =  config[a, b]
nb = config[(a+1)%N,b] + config[a,(b+1)%N] + config[(a-1)%N,b] + config[a,(b-1)%N]
cost = 2*s*nb
if cost < 0:
s *= -1
elif rand() < np.exp(-cost*beta):
s *= -1
config[a, b] = s
return config

def simulate(self):
''' This module simulates the Ising model'''
N, temp     = 64, .4        # Initialse the lattice
config = 2*np.random.randint(2, size=(N,N))-1
f = plt.figure(figsize=(15, 15), dpi=80);
self.configPlot(f, config, 0, N, 1);

msrmnt = 1001
for i in range(msrmnt):
self.mcmove(config, N, 1.0/temp)
if i == 1:       self.configPlot(f, config, i, N, 2);
if i == 4:       self.configPlot(f, config, i, N, 3);
if i == 32:      self.configPlot(f, config, i, N, 4);
if i == 100:     self.configPlot(f, config, i, N, 5);
if i == 1000:    self.configPlot(f, config, i, N, 6);

def configPlot(self, f, config, i, N, n_):
''' This modules plts the configuration once passed to it along with time etc '''
X, Y = np.meshgrid(range(N), range(N))
sp =  f.add_subplot(3, 3, n_ )
plt.setp(sp.get_yticklabels(), visible=False)
plt.setp(sp.get_xticklabels(), visible=False)
plt.pcolormesh(X, Y, config, cmap=plt.cm.RdBu);
plt.title('Time=%d'%i); plt.axis('tight')
plt.show()

In :
rm = Ising()

In :
rm.simulate() ## Kinetic Ising Models¶

• Ising model has no Hamiltonian given dynamics. For kinetics we assume that an associated heat bath generates spin flip $( S_{i} \rightarrow - S_{i})$.
• The kinetics can be
• The spin system, which have a non-conserved kinetics. At the microscopic level, spin-flip Glauber model is used to describe the non-conserved kinetics of the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition
• The binary (AB) mixture or Lattice Gas. The spin-exchange Kawasaki model is used to describe the conserved kinetics of binary mixtures at the microscopic level
• Purely dissipative and stochastic models are ofter referred to as Kinetic Ising models.
• At the coarse-grained level the respective order parameters, $\phi(\vec{r},t)$ are used to describe the dynamics.

### Domain Growth with non-conserved kinetics¶

• At $t = 0,$ a paramagnetic phase is quenched below the critical temperature $T_{c}$.
• The paramagnetic state is no longer the preferred equilibrium state.
• The far-from-equilibrium, homogeneous, state evolves towards its new equilibrium state by separating in domains.
• These domains coarsen with time and are characterized by length scale $L(t)$.
• A finite system becomes ordered in either of two equivalent states as $t \rightarrow \infty$.
• The simplest kinetics Ising model for non-conserved scalar field $\phi(\vec{r})$ is the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) model.

### TDGL equation¶

The equation of motion for $\phi$ can be written as:

$$\frac{\partial \phi}{\partial t} = -\Gamma \frac{\delta \mathcal{F}}{\delta \phi} +\theta(\vec{r},t)$$

where $\frac{\delta \mathcal{F}}{\delta \phi}$ denotes functional derivative of free-energy functional

$$\mathcal{F(\phi)} = \int \left[ a\phi^2 + b \phi^4 + \frac{1}{2}K(\nabla\phi)^{2}\right]$$

For $T < T_{c}$ we can write TDGL in terms of rescaled variables as

$$\frac{\partial \phi}{\partial t} = \phi-\phi^{3}+ \nabla^{2}\phi$$

In the next section we will simulate the TDGL equation.

In :
# Simulating the TDGL equation
# This example uses the 5-point Laplacian discretization from
# [here](https://github.com/ketch/finite-difference-course)
#
%matplotlib inline
import numpy as np
from __future__ import division
from scipy.sparse import spdiags,linalg,eye
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

a,b, k = 0, 1.0, 100.0
dh, dt = 1.0, 1e-3
Ng, Tf = 256, 10001

class TDGL():
'''
Class to solve a PDE
'''
def mu(self, u):
return a*u + b*u*u*u

def laplacian(self, Ng):
'''Construct a sparse matrix that applies the 5-point Laplacian discretization'''
e=np.ones(Ng**2)
e2=(*(Ng-1)+)*Ng
e3=(+*(Ng-1))*Ng
h=dh
A=spdiags([-4*e,e2,e3,e,e],[0,-1,1,-Ng,Ng],Ng**2,Ng**2)
A/=h**2
return A

def integrate(self, L, x, y, u):
'''  simulates the equation and plots it at different instants '''

f = plt.figure(figsize=(15, 15), dpi=80);

for i in range(Tf):
u = u - dt*(self.mu(u) - k*L.dot(u))

if (i==0):      self.configPlot(x, y, u, f, 1, i);
if (i==1):      self.configPlot(x, y, u, f, 2, i);
if (i==10):     self.configPlot(x, y, u, f, 3, i);
if (i==100):    self.configPlot(x, y, u, f, 4, i);
if (i==1000):   self.configPlot(x, y, u, f, 5, i);
if (i==10000):  self.configPlot(x, y, u, f, 6, i);

def configPlot(self, x, y, u,f, n_, i):
U= u.reshape((Ng, Ng))
sp =  f.add_subplot(3, 3, n_ )
plt.setp(sp.get_yticklabels(), visible=False)
plt.setp(sp.get_xticklabels(), visible=False)
plt.pcolormesh(x,y,U, cmap=plt.cm.RdBu);
plt.title('Time=%d'%i)
plt.show()

In :
rm = TDGL()   # instantiate the class

# generate the grid and initialise the field
x = np.linspace(-1,1,Ng)
y = np.linspace(-1,1,Ng)
X, Y = np.meshgrid(x, y)

u=np.random.randn(Ng*Ng, 1);  # Initial data
L = rm.laplacian(Ng)         # construct the laplacian
rm.integrate(L, x, y, u)    # simulate

#simulation completed!!